Education is a right guaranteed by the Federal Constitution since 1988. In this context, education must ensure the full development of the student and that a critical citizen is formed; that is, one who actively participates in the destiny of society. So, why still exist people in Brazil who are classified as "politically illiterate"? The answer is simple: the lack of political education in Brazilian schools.
The explanation for this phenomenon takes us back to the history of Brazil, as it is surrounded by the dominance of the bourgeoisie. Since the times of the hereditary captaincies, formal learning by tutorship was restricted to the economically privileged class. The consequences of this burden are felt and seen today in the form of a neoliberal education model that has transformed a basic right into a commodity, restricting access to quality education.
Paulo Freire, patron of Brazilian education, said "No pedagogy that is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed, treating them as wretches and presenting them as their models of emulation among the oppressors. The oppressed must be their own example in the struggle for their redemption". Thus, the vision of education as an instrument of liberation for the oppressed class becomes evident, and the question remains: why has quality education in Brazil become more and more elitist?
We don't know if it was his intention, but by saying that real education is an instrument of liberation, he made clear the only possible answer to the question raised earlier: The lack of public, democratic, quality education is an instrument of domination.
When we observe the glaring differences in the quality of public and private education in Brazil, we realize that there is in fact an elitization and, consequently, a deficit in the political knowledge of the great majority. This occurs due to several factors, such as poor infrastructure in public schools, school dropouts, and mainly the high cost of private education.
In the realm of elite education, about 30 million Brazilians live on an income of up to one minimum wage, which is not enough to pay the monthly fees of a private school. Thus, many opt for public education, which often has an insufficient political education due to low infrastructure factors, such as lack of adequate materials, qualified teachers, and low incentives to study.
Thus, another crucial factor for the elitization of education in Brazil is marginalization. Unfortunately, many young residents of the periphery have contact with crime on a daily basis, and see it as an easier and more attractive opportunity to earn an income, so they end up entering this world and abandoning their studies.
It can be noted that when we add all the factors presented, from the elitization of education at the time of the hereditary captaincies, to the current school drain, the lack of political education is due to the restriction of quality studies to the privileged classes. Thus, we can conclude that, in fact, our country needs an education-oriented management, so that we can finally have a more conscious, politically educated, and fair country.